Latest Event Updates
Norman Arbjorensen asks if Liberals have employed US Republican-style ‘strategic racism’ to win elections?
Norman writes: “The hardline stance by the Abbott government on asylum seekers – and let’s call it for what it is: a blatant appeal to racial prejudice thinly disguised as “border protection” – has served the Liberal Party well. But rather than racism driving the policy, as has been suggested, there might well be other agendas at play.
Consider the political advantages that the Liberals have won from the propagation and exploitation of fear. The 2013 election campaign is still fresh in memory with Tony Abbott’s repeated mantra of “stop the boats”, and the explicit linking of asylum seekers and their flimsy vessels with border protection and national security. We have now seen the deployment of the armed forces to turn them back.
To take his military analogy to the point of absurdity, in an interview in January Abbott likened the situation to a war – that is, a heavily armed, First-World nation mobilised against a sporadic and unorganised invasion of leaky boats. He declined to give details about the government’s strategies because that would be “giving out information that is of use to the enemy”.
That is highly charged rhetoric and a look at recent political history suggests a pattern that is more than just crass political opportunism.
The “stop the boats” mantra was trumpeted loudly in the 2013 campaign, but what did we hear about savage cuts to welfare, steep rises in student fees, the abolition of the discrimination commissioner’s job, the handing over of the Human Rights Commission to an avowed opponent of its existence, the free rein given to the Business Council of Australia via the Commission of Audit, or to the far-right Institute of Public Affairs in writing policy and setting the agenda? Such outcomes have little discernible benefit to anyone but the big corporates and the very rich, and contain distinct downsides for most who responded to the “stop the boats” siren song.
Thirty years ago, Ronald Reagan pitched a shameless appeal to the “moral majority” with his folksy talk about the sanctity of the family and traditional values, not for their own sake but simply because supply-side economics, which we now know as neoliberalism, was as little understood as it was unpalatable to the average voter. Strategic racism is simply a reprise of that monumentally successful exercise.
After the 2004 election, the Liberal Party sought to play down the issue as a deliberate focus of its campaign, despite a poll showing 10 per cent of respondents nominated it as their reason to vote Liberal. I attended an industry briefing in the election’s aftermath in which a top Liberal Party campaign strategist was asked why the Labor Party kept losing elections (by then, four in a row). “It’s simple,” he said. “A message of fear beats a message of hope every time.”
The intake of breath in that auditorium was palpable.”
For many close watchers of conservative politics in Australia I have to admit there’s not much new to learn here. Many journalists have written similar words over recent years. Here’s a good example in the Guardian by David Marr: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/22/iillegals-refugees-immigration-australia
In coming days I’m planning to add some historical information about the most recent ACT Assembly election, which was held on 20 October 2012. The first item is a submission made by one of our member’s Chris Monnox to a post-election report compiled after the campaign. Chris is an author and academic, who also recently wrote a very comprehensive history of ACT Labor.
I’ll begin by attaching a pdf copy of Chris’s submission.
As previously mentioned, Associate Professor Sally Young has written some great books and research papers about political campaigning in Australia, particularly advertising techniques.
Her book The Persuaders: Inside the Hidden Machine of Political Advertising (Pluto Press, 2004), is a terrific read for students of journalism, political science and professional communications.
If you haven’t read any of her recent work this article is a great starting point: A Century of Political Communication in Australia, 1901–2001.
At the bottom of the article is a link to download a pdf (if you prefer to print it out an read it on a bus or in bed later).
I love some of the old photos that Sally has collated in her various articles and books, but not many come close to the entertainment value of this video from the Gruen Transfer…
As mentioned previously, I’m not alone in thinking about how professional Australian politics has becomes over the past few decades. For several years since I started a thesis, which is now on a back-burner due to work, family, life, etc.
A couple of years ago I read the ad below and it got me thinking again …then I was distracted by the small matter of helping a government get re-elected and managing a party office…. Now I’m thinking again. If a 20-something Senator in the Greens can advertise such a well-defined professional campaign position why aren’t there more Australian books, blogs and forums on political campaigning and campaign techniques? Where does one go to get qualified for such a well-paid job?*
Then around October last year at a media conference in ANU I heard that Greg Jericho was heading up the new “Political Communications” degree training at UC – great stuff!
CAMPAIGNS & COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER – Position Description Senator Sarah Hanson-Young
Campaigns & Communications Manager SENATOR SARAH HANSON-YOUNG
26th July 2012 2:46 pm
The Campaigns & Communications Manager (CCM) would suit a highly motivated person with a strong history in managing large-scale campaigns in a political environment, and who possesses highly developed strategic and communications skills. As part of a small team the CCM will be responsible for the overall management of the Senator’s re-election campaign along with management of strategic communications and campaign priorities of the Senator’s various portfolios. The CCM will work closely with the Senator’s Chief of Staff and Media Advisor to ensure day-to-day communications are strategic and effective. The CCM will also work with the Senator’s Electorate Liaison officer on campaign priorities and election preparations.
Roles and Responsibilities
1. Primary responsibility for coordinating the Senator’s re-election campaign.
2. Develop and manage the Senator’s communication strategy.
3. Work with Media Advisor to ensure all communications are clear, effective and strategic.
4. Develop and maintain effective working relationships with relevant internal and external stakeholders;
5. Develop and support key campaigns on key portfolio priorities.
6. Work closely with internal and external stakeholders to ensure consistency and co-ordination of the Senator’s strategic direction, communications and campaign priorities.
7. Identify campaigning opportunities that support parliamentary work and parliamentary opportunities that will support ongoing campaigns.
8. Help manage and coordinate Senator’s media appearances and requests as required.
9. Manage the production of communication materials produced and authorised by the Senator’s office.
10. Represent the Senator on internal election campaign committees and working groups.
11. Represent the Senator at official events, party functions, community meetings and public engagements if required.
A salary within the range $60,827 -69,216pa will be determined commensurate with relevant skills and experience. In addition, an allowance in the range $14,319-$17,898 is payable in lieu of overtime.
Applications addressing the selection criteria and the names of two referees should be forwarded to: email@example.com by 8 August 2012. Position Description Senator Sarah Hanson-Young Campaigns & Communications Manager
Below is an article I co-wrote with a Canberra-based history academic Chris Monnox regarding last year’s federal Labor leadership ballot. it was published in the Canberra Times just before the result of the ballot was officially declared.
Labor leadership ballot a win/win By Elias Hallaj and Chris Monnox
Labor’s Federal Leadership ballot has been a valuable recruiting and organising opportunity for the ACT Branch of the Party, as it has for each state and territory branch. Eligibility to vote in this historic ballot was bestowed on everyone who was a member of the ACT Branch of the Australian Labor Party on 7 September. Around 1,000 people in the ACT joined 50,000 across Australia and had an opportunity to have a direct say in who would be the next Labor Leader.
Labor is the only party in Australia that gives its ordinary members this opportunity and it signals a new era of reform and participation within our party. As national secretary George Wright told Sky, there is a “big appetite” for participatory democracy.
The immediate benefits to the party have been obvious to all those who work in or near its offices and representatives both in Canberra and across Australia:
1. Membership has increased. More new members have joined and more existing members have renewed their membership. The enfranchisement of all members, regardless of length of membership and amount of meetings they have attended was a stroke of genius. It gave an immediate reward to all the new recruits who signed up on the battlefield of the 2013 campaign.
2. The ballot has been an opportunity to test real-life grassroots engagement and communication skills for many experienced and new hands. The ultimate test in genuine democracies is popular support. This ballot has been a test of messages, networks, campaign techniques, and in some cases relationships and loyalties. All this adds to the campaign capacity and skills base of the party and enables better outcomes in future public contests.
3. The candidates have led by example in ensuring mature and convivial competition and debate, without resorting to personal attacks, despite regular baiting from the mainstream media and the party’s numerous external (and sometimes internal) critics. This has been particularly cathartic following the end of the most recent Gillard-Rudd leadership contest.
4. The numerous leadership forums and seminars and debates have ensured a new pattern of regular interaction between the leadership of the parliamentary wing of the party and the membership of the party. The ACT Branch experience is that these interactions are normal, with relatively easy access to our elected representatives. The public display of this access and its reinforcement at all levels will make the party stronger in the future.
5. The federal leadership ballot has utilized a new acceptance (some say obsession) within modern politics of the latest communications tools. Not only did the candidates and their organised teams supporters use the latest communications techniques more effectively than ever before, the party membership and supporters also used new techniques to engage directly with each other and these new techniques complemented well more traditional town-hall style meetings and telephone conferences all over the country.
6. Not all the administrative and organising for this ballot has been conducted by the formal party administration. The loose networks which are a normal part of any human social activity, normally referred to as “factions” in politics, have also played an active role. And (surprisingly for some) the factions behaved very well. The previous PM might be alarmed to learn that one outcome of his innovative decree has been the evolution of the national factions to a point where they have, in a matter of weeks, demonstrated consistent sophisticated and diplomatic communication and organisational techniques and skills. Factions are an inevitable and normal part of democratic politics, but for too long in Australian politics the downside of factions dominated the public discourse. If they behave in a mature and intelligent manner, organised groups of adults (teams in sporting parlance) can achieve great things. When the major groups or factions in an organization can compete AND cooperate fairly, the whole organisation can benefit. After this ballot, we also now have a clearer line of leadership and authority within the two main factions that will make future cooperation, consultation and negotiation simpler and more efficient.
These have been the benefits. There have been costs as well, most obviously opportunity for the party’s regular critics to accuse it of “navel-gazing” and “in-fighting”, despite the obvious examples of policy debate and organisational success the ballot has brought. The ballot has also been hard work. When asked what her favorite part of the leadership ballot was, a young party members instinctively responded “it’s about end, thank god”. Unfortunately it’s hard to imagine that the future timing of these ballots will not inevitably coincide with the end of a hard-fought campaign, so the participants will inevitably be exhausted until both end.
This process of evolution for this ballot is continuing. From an ACT perspective the democracy has been superb and the opportunity for our local political activists to participate fully in such a historical initiative has been wholeheartedly welcomed. This sentiment has been shared in every city and town which has had an opportunity to host a candidate’s forum, or two (as was the fortunate case in Canberra).
Some of the less predictable aspects of the ballot (such as members sharing pictures of their votes on social media) were unpredictable but may become more normal practice in future public campaigns and elections. We have no doubt that the process has been an overwhelmingly positive one that has strengthened relationships and campaigning skills within the Party. Even Christopher Pyne agrees. In 2008 he penned his opinion on this issue, arguing the Liberal Party should adopt the same process. http://www.ipa.org.au/library/publication/1210898292_document_pyne.pdf
This article represents the personal views of the authors. Elias Hallaj has been the ACT Labor Secretary since 2009 and was previously an Assistant National Secretary of the ALP. Chris Monnox is a PhD Candidate in political history and recently wrote an extensive history of the ACT Branch of the Australian Labor Party as part of his research at ANU.
Photo by Andrew Meares sourced from the same article in the Canberra Times http://www.canberratimes.com.au/federal-politics/political-opinion/everyones-a-winner-in-a-clean-fight-20131012-2vfaz.html
Although I’ve explain previously the why and how of this blog, I recently came across an article which better articulates why writing (and blogging) is useful for anyone who is in a leadership position (whether they like to admit it or not) in any industry or field of endeavour. The full original article Why Every Leader Should Know How to Write by John Hall can be found via LinkedIn here http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20131209150526-86319010-why-every-leader-should-know-how-to-write and can be summarised as follows:
It takes time, energy, and humility to improve your skills as a writer. The payoff, however, is immense.
Here’s what happens when you’re at the top of your writing game:
1. You embed your vision and culture across a wide audience.
2. You open yourself up to valuable feedback.
3. You lead the conversation in your industry.
4. You engage influencers.
Fear and Writing
In his memoir, “On Writing,” Stephen King argues that fear is at the root of bad writing. And, despite all our hubris, there is plenty of fear in the world of business leadership. We’re afraid of running our companies into the ground. We’re afraid of being beaten out by the competition. And we’re afraid that others won’t perceive us the way we want to be perceived.
These fears are what prevent many leaders from becoming great writers. For them, the perceived risk is just too daunting an obstacle.
I know how hard it is to put your ego on the line. I still get nervous when I publish something. But it’s absurd to assume that you should be good at something if you never try. No matter how confident you become in your writing skills, there will always be room for improvement.
So seek out the best writers on your team. Swallow your pride, and ask them to critique your work. Are you communicating as effectively as possible? You’ll find that your team has a vested interest in helping you unlock your full potential as a writer.
The number of platforms leaders have to showcase their brands through writing is growing. If you’re not utilizing them, you’re letting fear stand in the way of opportunity.
As Stephen King says, “Good writing is…about letting go of fear and affectation.” So let go. Just write.
ANU Doctoral Candidate Jennifer Rayner has written a great article on The Conversation about Liberal Party ads from the 1940s and how they speak today’s political language.
Jennifer explains how “Melbourne University has unearthed the only remaining recordings of the Liberal Party’s landmark 1948 “John Henry Austral” radio serial – the first Australian example of a professional, media-centric political ad campaign.
The John Henry Austral series was Australia’s first nationally coordinated and professionally produced political ad campaign. It ran twice-weekly as a 15-minute radio serial for 20 months leading up to the 1949 election, in paid spots on about 80 radio stations across Australia. Campaign scholar Stephen Mills estimates that it cost the Liberal Party some £2300 a month to run the series; this equates to around $125,000 in today’s money and makes it one of the most expensive political ad campaigns the country has ever seen.
Although John Henry Austral was a fictional character voiced by actor Richard Matthews, his purpose was very real: to foster antipathy towards the Chifley Government and so pave the way for a Liberal victory in 1949.
Authors such as Mills and the University of Melbourne’s own Dr Sally Young have argued that the remarkable modernity of the John Henry Austral campaign shows that the Liberal Party was ahead of its time in pioneering professional campaign techniques.
Jennifer is one of the brilliant minds behind this week’s political campaigning workshop at Sydney University. You can find more of her articles at The Conversation here.
I’ll come back and tidy up this list on a regular basis 🙂
If you’ve read my earlier (now slightly dated) literature review or discussed political campaigning with me over a few beers (I apologise for everything I said after the third beer) you’ll know I often lament about the relative lack of professional and academic interest in political campaign training in Australia. Well it’s clear I’m not the only one, because this week in Sydney there’ll be an inaugural event that brings many academics and practitioners together to discuss this very thing!
Check out the website: http://www.cmpm2014.org/ for “The 2014 Australia New Zealand WORKSHOP ON CAMPAIGN MANAGEMENT & POLITICAL MARKETING”. As far as I know registration is open to all those with an interest in this field, academic or otherwise.
As the website explains: “In 2014, the University of Sydney’s Graduate School of Government will play host to the second Australia-New Zealand Workshop on Campaign Management and Political Marketing. The workshop will bring together academics and practitioners for an in-depth discussion of current and emerging trends in campaign management and political marketing, and generate new networks and opportunities for further trans-Tasman and international research. The workshop will particularly focus on the intersection between research and practice, and is open to academics, party representatives, political consultants, research students and civil society campaigners.”
As well as a series of panels and discussions about many aspects of campaigning the highlights will include some discussion of Stephen Mill’s new book The Professionals: Strategy, Money and the Rise of the Political Campaigner in Australia I haven’t read the book yet, but if it’s anywhere near as good as his brilliant 1986 book “The New Machine Men” I will probably read it a few times and ask him a few questions about it afterwards! 🙂
Stephen has been busy promoting his book in the media recently. Here are some links to recent articles and interviews:
Here’s a short summary:
Political polling, door-knocking, the targeting of marginal seats and swinging voters. They’re terms all Australians are now very familiar with as elections continually roll around. But that wasn’t always the case. Academic and author Stephen Mills examines how politics in Australia has been shaped and influenced in the newly published The Professionals: Strategy, Money and the Rise of the Political Campaigner in Australia.
That’s not Stephen, it’s Liberal Party National Director Mr Brian Loughnane, one of the many interviewees featured in Stephen’s new book. Do yourself a favour and buy it.
If you want to see what Stephen looks like and learn more about his amazing work then you should check out his website! http://www.stephen-mills.com.au/
Three American Campaign texts and their local relevance
Three recent American books on campaigning and political marketing have been rated for relevance to Australian practice. They are assessed from the perspective of a candidate or campaign director/manager for an Australian federal or state electorate. The final test is whether the American text is more or less useful than a 1990 book by former minister Barry Cohen which was written in jest as much as instruction How to become Prime Minister, for all aspiring politicians (and the people who have to vote for them). There are at least two chapters that would serve as a dated but helpful campaign handbook to budding politicians and campaign directors who do not have the benefit of party training and manuals.
Of the American books, time is short so let’s select three easily purchased examples to look at in detail: Bruce Newman’s The Marketing of the President: political marketing as campaign strategy, Dennis Johnson’s No Place for Amateurs: How Political Consultants Are Reshaping American Democracy, and Shea’s Campaign craft : the strategies, tactics, and art of political campaign management.
The first famous book on political campaigning is Bruce Newman’s The Marketing of the President: political marketing as campaign strategy. The title might seem interesting to an Australian campaigner who doesn’t have much political experience, however a quick look at the contents page reveals little detail that would apply to an Australian federal or state election. Written in 1994, it’s clearly not a ‘how to’ book for campaigning novices and reads more like an academic text about political marketing theory, with a few insights and examples from presidential campaigns in the 1960s, 70s, 80s and 90s. Some of the more useful information provided from an Australian perspective is an explanation of the modern challenges facing candidates and parties in the appropriately titled second chapter The Shifting Winds of Politics in which brief explanations are provided for: relationship marketing, increasing campaign expenses, voter fragmentation and sophistication; how campaigning has superseded the old party structures and loyalties, the power of modern media in political campaigns, candidate selection pitfalls and how (in the view of the authors) marketing concepts have superseded party concepts in modern campaigning; Overall a useful chapter to an inexperienced student of campaign strategy, but of little practical instruction to an Australian candidate or campaign director. Chapter Three focuses on various trends in computers, TV, direct mail, US party structures and US primary/convention rules, US financial regulations, presidential debate formats, candidate philosophy, the value of consultants, pollsters, the media, parties, political action committees (PACs) and other interest groups and, last but not least, voters. All descriptions of trends and groups are treated with a distinct US-centric flavour that makes most of the content very hard to translate if there isn’t an existing familiarity with the US system and clear understanding of how it differs from the Australian context. The next Chapter is even more disappointing from an Australian campaigning perspective as it is titled but is in fact a detailed account of the strategies used to segment various interest groups by presidential candidates in each party’s primary season. Although US primaries have been compared to Australian preselections they are in practice very different due to a number of factors such as the ability of non-party-members to vote, the subsequent use of mass media to sway voters and national organised efforts in the case of presidential primaries. After only three chapters this text is clearly not up to basic standards of relevance for modern campaigns in Australia. Compared to the Cohen book, it’s not much practical use to an Australian campaigner or candidate and much less entertaining.
One useful insight from the 1994 book by Newman is the damage that Ross Perot’s candidacy caused Bush snr as Perot, a conservative independent, detracted from Bush’s conservative message and appeal. The Green’s Ralph Nader caused Al Gore similar grief in 2000. One could argue that the federal ‘compulsory preferential’ ballot in Australia minimises the destructive power of third party candidates, but Hanson’s One Nation had a similarly destructive, though temporary, effect on Liberal votes in 1998, and particularly in the subsequent Queensland state election, in which the ballot was ‘optional preferential’.
Newman’s 1999 book The Mass Marketing of Politics: Democracy in an Age of Manufactured Images updates much of the concepts and examples of his previous text but reads like a critique of modern politics and would not be recommended reading for candidates or inexperienced campaign directors less they lose all motivation for politics. The opening sentence in the preface is “The Mass Marketing of Politics makes it very clear why our democracy is on shaky ground”! Newman outlines that his main motivation in writing the book “is to help educate an American electorate that is very frustrated that is very frustrated with the state of its political affairs”. But for those interested in the strategies behind American presidential campaigns, chapter 5 is a ‘must-read’. Although there is no juicy detail that would suggest he is an evil genius, Richard Wirthlin, Reagan’s pollster, also gets a mention. That’s the same Wirthlin that was such an inspiration to Mark Textor in subsequent years. Chapter 6, The Art of Crafting An Image is one of the few really big improvements on the earlier book, as it provides practical advice on the importance of perception and emotional connections in politics. A very amusing (but insightful) anecdote at the end of the book relates to the 1998 election, where former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura was elected governor of Minnesota. During Ventura’s campaign, “one ad depicted two boys playing with an action figure that had a shaved head and bulging muscles ripping through the seams of a dark suit. One of the boys bangs the doll’s fist on a desk, railing against Evil Special Interest Man”. A campaign novelty, the doll actually went on sale soon after the election, with proceeds split between charity and future campaigns. Now there’s a lesson in marketing for Australian political aspirants!
I would have liked to assess Newman’s famous (and relatively expensive) Handbook of Political Marketing but it is not available for purchase in Australia and the order (via Amazon) has taken a particularly longer time than hoped. Appraisal of it will be included in the updated notes for the thesis. The fact that it is out of print and hard to find probably makes assessment irrelevant from the perspective of a practical text for campaigning in Australia.
The second book assessed in some detail is Dennis Johnson’s No Place for Amateurs: How Political Consultants Are Reshaping American Democracy. The copy I have was printed (2nd edition) in 2001. The cover has a quote from James Carville, Clinton’s famous campaign director and star of the political documentary The War Room. From an Australian perspective it’s better than Barry Cohen’s book, both as a campaign manual and as a well-written book. The book is so well-written that an Australian with the barest understanding of politics can pick it up and without any previous knowledge of the US political processes and follow his detailed explanations. The introduction is particularly good, explaining how the US “is the land of elections” with “approximately 513,200 popularly elected officials” and “over a million elections are held in every four year cycle.” The focus of the book is the professional political consultant, of which there “are about 7,000” assisting with the largest 50,000 campaigns per year. To put this in an Australian perspective (where Party officials and staff undertake the campaign roles normally assigned to professional consultants in the US), there is probably around 50 full-time staff in an Australian federal party’s campaign headquarters and around 50 contractors working off-site and no more than another 100 or so other full-time staff scattered around various cities – and this heavy concentration of Australian full-time campaign professionals happens about once every three years!
The introduction to this great book continues with an explanation of six categories of campaigns in the US, based on “size of the electorate, relative importance of the office and degree of involvement of campaign professionals”. Of the six, Australian federal elections are probably equivalent (in terms of money and population) to the race for Governor of a medium to large state, (like Pennsylvania, where Democrat Ed Rendell raised and spent US$30million in 2006). What is startling from an Australian perspective is that our federal electorate campaigns, with a typical voting population of around 80-90,000 voters (compared to around 600,000 residents in a US congressional seat), fall into the final, smallest category of elections used by Johnson, which he calls “Small Elections” where consultants are generally not used. He explains that “these campaigns essentially count on name recognition and face-to-face meetings with voters, and have low-Budget advertising through posters, yard signs and last-minute advertisements in local newspapers.” Welcome to the reality of campaigning in the average Australian suburban federal electorate! Some Australian federal electorates (the twenty most marginal, especially those in regional seats) would fall into the category above: “Medium Sized elections below the state-wide level, usually mayoral elections for city’s of over 250,000 or state legislative races. “These elections are being transformed most rapidly from amateur to professional.”
No Place for Amateurs is a how-to guide for political campaigning and is written by an experienced campaigner as it is full of well-written and believable anecdotes which provide clear examples to readers about how to do things correctly or stuff them up when you are working on a campaign. The book explains clearly what political consultants do and how stressful campaigning can be, as well as the technical aspects of research, strategy and planning, polling, media management, targeting voters and raising campaign funds. This inside look at campaign consulting avoids the anti-consultant hysteria of some recent insider books from the US. He also highlights some trouble spots in the US and suggests some reforms. There is now a 2007 (third) edition of Johnson’s book, which I will try and get and look forward to see which sections have been updated.
Daniel Shea’s Campaign craft: the strategies, tactics, and art of political campaign management, co-written with Michael Burton, is also now in it’s third edition. This book, from an Australian campaign perspective, is even better than Johnson’s and if you are interested in learning about nuts and bolts campaign techniques from the US and wanted to buy just one book – this is it. Shea explains in the preface of the 2001 edition that he wrote the book “to help bridge the gap between what scholars understood about modern elections and what campaign operatives knew about the process.” After briefly outlining the history of modern campaigning and explaining the emergence of professional political consultants, the book covers all the fundamentals of any good campaign manual. The first working chapter (two) lays the foundations of any good campaign plan: research and strategy. The following points are quickly covered, all 100% relevant to any political contest in Australia: District profile, demographic profile, candidate and opposition profiles, electoral history, public opinion, general strategy and message, fundraising plan, and traditional grassroots strategies. The writing style is as an instruction manual for a local campaign manager or candidate. There is wise counsel about the importance of good strategy, management and planning, with valuable advice on timing various aspects of the campaign plan for maximum benefit.
All the subsequent chapters elaborate on chapter two, indicating how the overall strategy is essentially made from distinct specialised elements that all relate to each other in a successful campaign. Throughout the text, there are numerous national, state and local examples to illustrate the lessons and help the reader avoid the common mistakes and pitfalls that are part of every election campaign. All the subsequent chapters are written so that each can be read on its own, as a quick lesson in a particular aspect of campaigning. This can prove to be an invaluable aid in training and discussions about specific aspects of campaigns. As with No Place for Amateurs Shea’s Campaign craft could easily be dissected and applied to a local campaign case study. It would take a great deal of time and would demonstrate that each of thee books present transferable knowledge, not because American and Australian campaign techniques are identical, but because the fundamentals of good campaign management and practice are universal. Such an exercise would be worthwhile because there are no Australian equivalents to these two books. Both Mills and Stockwell’s books cover some of the ground but not in a systematic and comprehensive style that could be used as a manual. Also, both Mills and Stockwell are communications specialists and not campaign strategy and management specialists.
One of the training aids which the author has seen used successfully in political circles is the ABC TV documentary about the 1984 election in the federal seat of Cook, That’s Democracy. A worthwhile thesis would be to compare the lessons from the TV documentary e.g. How not to run strategy, planning, fundraising, media, voter contact, publicity, etc and how those essential campaign processes are explained in Shea’s book.
Last year (2007) A British book appeared which was written by a former Conservative party campaigner Lionel Zetter: The Political Campaigning Handbook. Real life lessons from the front line. Zetter’s book is a reasonably logical how-to guide for running an election in the UK. It does not have the academic robustness of the Shea and Johnson texts but it is practical in its advice and no doubt of use to conservative candidates in UK elections, as well as Australian and American observers of the next UK general election.
Discussion, implications, conclusions, continuing research
Mills wisely states that “Australia’s oldest political tradition is borrowing and adaptation: Canberra’s Westminster system is hardly home-grown”
One can see examples in the available literature of when the required adaptation was carried out successfully, leading to electoral benefits. It’s a bit harder to find examples of the poor adaptations, as one can point to many factors in any election loss. One of the examples of poor adaptation is the use of automated phone messaging by the Liberal Party, both in 2004 and 2007, as described in an earlier section.
The lesson for Australian political scientists and campaigners is that much of what is written about campaigning techniques in American books and journals must be treated with caution. A lot of techniques have been tried and adapted but few have been tested to the extent that scientific studies in the US would suggest is required to prove their worth beyond dispute.
Thompson concluded that “it would be inappropriate to call Australian politics “Americanised” and “American ideas are Australianised by imprinting onto them the Australian way of doing politics and Australian content. Despite all the American-born influences, Australian politics and its political system remain distinctively and uniquely Australian.” 28 p 121
Plasser’s studies show that the degree of influence of American-style campaign techniques in Australia is very small in comparison to Latin America and Europe. This would suggest a relatively strong integrity in Australian political character relative to many Western-style democracies.
Plasser also identifies Australian trends which run against American ones, such as the well-recognised influence of party-centric campaigning in Australia. This is counter to the parties diminishing relevance for campaign professionals in the US.
There are also arguable examples of campaign techniques that are more ruthless and professional in Australia than in the US or UK. The Australian examples of the National Media Liaison Service (1983-1996) and the Government Members Secretariat (1996-2007) indicate, as Stockwell describes, “a whole of government approach to media management that is fundamentally changing the nexus between politics and the media”, because we “lack the protections of the US First Amendment and the bustling, brawling press of Fleet Street”.
In describing the “new political machine men” Mills writes “Some regard them with a combination of awe and dismay, the harbingers of a new and expensive Americanism which will do to our parliamentary system what McDonald’s did to the corner fish and chip shop. Others dismiss them as nasty but temporary fads which our entrenched political traditions will reject like unsuccessful organ transplants.”
The truth, as usual is probably somewhere in between those two extremes.
Mills is correct that American-derived campaign techniques are mostly expensive but they can also save campaigners money if applied correctly. Microtargeting and Robocalls are as much about reducing waste and expenditure through better targeted messaging and more efficient mediums. A robocall can attempt “contact” and convey a message to a substantial part of an electorate for much less expense than a TV or radio ad, or a direct mail or professionally letterboxed flyer.
One could argue that the real death knell of the corner fish and chip shop was the ascendency of the European café culture which has gripped the Australian psyche in the last two decades. McDonalds has survived by adapting to it rather than relying on its sheer efficiency and turnover. Starbucks was an example of a direct American import which was itself recently a casualty of our café culture. The analogy is accurate because it stipulates that American-derived campaign techniques must be adapted and localised to be effective.
To some extent all campaign techniques have a waxing and waning popularity and can justifiably be described in one period or another as “fads”. But our entrenched political traditions are much more accommodating than the critics have hoped and, if applied, carefully and with sage advice, most campaign techniques, new or old, have some merit. Politics is certainly a profession that believes in the expression “what was once old can be new again” and in many cases the new techniques, compliment, rather than replace, traditional campaigning.
One very interesting aspect of the McAllister 2007 AES is “the 2007 election was unusual in exhibiting an increase in the use of the traditional media” by voters to obtain electoral information.
McAllister’s findings support Hugh Mackay’s regular assertion that 2007 marked a “political awakening” amongst the Australian population, a turning point which has ended a period of political stability at the federal and state level and started a new period with increased interest and expectations about politics, marked by signs of electoral instability and voter volatility. The 2008 campaigns and elections in the NT, WA, the ACT and various by-elections support this view. Lenore Taylor wrote recently that “Hugh Mackay’s latest mind and mood survey, based on focus group surveys across the country, found that people were hankering after a statesmanlike prime minister with big ideas and the courage to back them. Like the one they thought they had voted for last year.”
Mills optimistically states that “Australia’s oldest political tradition is borrowing and adaption; Canberra’s Westminster system is hardly home-grown.” And that “local practitioners have proven themselves able to master and adapt the import as a creative springboard for local innovations.” He is also optimistic about the durability of our basic political system and its ability to remain a democratic cornerstone. “It’s no use worrying about whether Australian politics is becoming more ‘presidential’. The fundamental rules of political competition in this country are fixed: prime Ministers, unlike presidents, will always need a majority in the House of Representatives; new campaign practices will neither sharpen nor dull the desire of backbenchers to become Prime Minister; nor of opposition to form Government.”
A book by Dominic Wring (published in 2005) about the evolution of political marketing in the UK Labour Party follows a similar timeline to Mill’s descriptions of American influences here. One peculiar aspect of this evolution in the UK is the “party’s educationalist ethos” which favoured education over persuasion as a political objective and “documentary film techniques rather than commercial style productions” for many decades. Wring is critical of the marketing focus of the Blair years and blames it for a fundamental collapse in recent Labour support in the UK, as the party’s strategists and campaigners lost sight of the party’s base in their quest research-based messages and policies primarily targeted at the swinging voter. Similar criticisms have been made of the Australian Labor Party, although without the weight of evidence provided in the UK and the US based on their more widespread use of professional political marketing theory and techniques. Wring concludes that Blair was wrong in his calculation that “a section of his core vote would stay Labour because they had nowhere else to go. The dramatic fall in turnout at the 2001 general election suggested otherwise.”
Even with “compulsory voting”, Australia is not immune to dramatic falls in turnout, which have been experienced in Australian by-elections and most recently in the NT election, widely criticised for being called earlier than expected. No doubt further analysis of the underlying causes of drops in voter turnout will explore the influence of increasing voter cynicism towards political marketing and transparent political strategies designed for partisan advantage.
Whether discussing American influence here, important lessons can be learnt from comparative analysis of US campaign techniques and those in other countries, such as Blumler’s UK studies. One is “to avoid the glib uses of the notion of Americanisation to explain swirling developments in campaign communication in other societies.” Two false impressions that this term creates were identified: The incorrect assumption that both political systems are static when there are in fact “both converging and diverging trends”. Secondly, although there may appear to be “direct imitation”, it may in fact be “adaptation into an existing set of practices”. In fact the authors noted that during both recent campaigns, experts from the British Labour party and the Clinton team observed each other in action and shared their tactical expertise with each other.
Mancini and Swanson articulate a view that is shared by many academics, offering “Americanisation not as a conclusion, but as a reference point and a working hypothesis with which to begin the analysis.”
After explaining the higher relative propensity of negative attacks in Australian political advertising, Young writes that “it now seems quite fanciful to blame ‘Americanization’ for the high use of negative political ads, as this has always been a feature of Australian political advertising and Australia’s use of this style of advertising has been higher than most other western democracies, including the US, for some years.” She suggests that the increase in negative ads has as much to do with the mediums being used and their focus on party leaders as any conscious strategy.
The reality of the lack of Americanisation of Australian politics can be found from exceptions to the commonly held view. In researching this thesis, one would assume that a book titled Developments in Australian politics would contain a string of various examples of how American influences are being adopted and adapted to the Australian political landscape. In fact there are none. This is not a criticism of the book or its many authors; the book simply displays a mature and detailed analysis that does not require comparison to foreign cultural, political and media influences.
A similarly titled book that was published three years later, New developments in Australian politics, does include some American comparisons, such as in a chapter titled The Core Executive by Glyn Davis, in which he explains how, unlike their American counterparts, Australian leaders remain hostage to their party and to the parliament.”
Bob Hogg wisely wrote “campaigning has to continually adapt to the changes in the habits and social activities of the voters and meet the Australian condition, not America’s. If it doesn’t, then the campaign will fail.”
Elaine Thompson, who derides many of the marketing and campaigning influences from American politics (including an obsession with image with resulted in Gough Whitlam’s hairstyle being “transformed” and “Even John Howard had his glasses changed and his eyebrows tamed for television”!) states that “it would be inappropriate to call Australian politics ‘Americanised’. Rather American ideas are Australianised by imprinting onto them the Australian way of doing politics and Australian content. Despite all the American-born influences, Australian politics and its political system remain distinctively and uniquely Australian.”
This literature review outlines the vast amount of American and British material on this subject as well as the growing volume of Australian analysis.
The search for “American political campaign techniques” has shown nearly all are not exclusive to American politics. In many cases these techniques (with localised variations) are universal but are labeled as “American” because the texts and examples used as references are American, but this is to be expected when political campaign instruction, research and analysis is documented better in the US than in any other nation and there are more campaign professionals and organisations in the US due to the larger mass of the political consultancy industry, media, academia and related professions. The larger publishing market available to political commentators in the US ensures that the most popular political studies and books are researched, printed and distributed there.
As stated earlier, the lack of similar material in Australia means that Australian campaigners searching for good campaign manuals will inevitably turn to the US.
Although this literature review has identified some techniques that focus on practices that do not seem relevant to Australian politics (such as “get out the vote techniques” and foreign finance regulations) this research has begun to demonstrate how all techniques must be localised to some extent and even the most basic tasks such as “doorknocking” or “direct mail” must be carefully adapted to local conditions and culture or risk alienating local voters.
Bibliography (so far)
1. Lengle, J., A panel discussion on the US presidential election, J. Hart, Editor. 2008: Copland Lecture Theatre, ANU.
2. Mills, S., The new machine men: polls and persuasion in Australian politics / Stephen Mills. 1986, Ringwood, Vic: Penguin. vii, 216 p.
3. Hart, J., An Australian president? A comparative perspective, Ch 8 in Menzies to Keating : the development of the Australian prime ministership / edited by Patrick Weller. 1992, Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press. ix, 226 p.
4. Kaid, L.L., Handbook of political communication research / edited by Lynda Lee Kaid. 2004, Mahwah, N.J. :: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. xviii, 541 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
5. Zagami, P., Marketing, Media, Money and America, in Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts. 1997, Australian National University: Canberra. p. 70.
6. Rosenbaum, M., From soapbox to soundbite : party political campaigning in Britain since 1945 / Martin Rosenbaum. 1997, New York :: St. Martin’s Press. xii, 315 p.
7. Economou, N., The trouble-maker’s ballot box?: A note on the evolving role of the Australian federal by-election. Australian Journal of Political Science, 1999. 34(2): p. 239-247.
8. Klugman, K.K., Democracy and the new Communication Technologies, in Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts,. 1996, Australian National University: Canberra.
9. Downs, A., An economic theory of democracy. / N.Y., Harper & Row,  bibl First pub. in 1957. 1957.
10. O’Shaughnessy, N.J., The phenomenon of political marketing / Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy. 1990, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan. xii, 286 p.
11. Warhurst, e.b.I.M.a.J., Australia votes : the 1987 federal election 1988, South Melbourne: Longman Academic.
12. Newman, B.I., Handbook of Political Marketing. 1999: Sage Publications, Inc. 816.
13. England, C., Poll advice: Next election winnable if party acts now. Liberals need a new man at the top, in Adelaide Advertiser. 2008, Adelaide Advertiser: Adelaide.
14. Shea, D.M. and Burton, Campaign craft : the strategies, tactics, and art of political campaign management / Daniel M. Shea and Michael John Burton. Rev. and expanded ed ed. 2001, Westport, Conn. ; London :: Praeger. xii, 239 p. ; 24 cm.
15. Loveday, P., Surveys of Australian political science / edited by Don Aitkin for the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. 1985, Sydney :: George Allen & Unwin. xi, 365 p.
16. MacCallum, M., Political Illiteracy, in The Age. 2005, Fairfax: Melbourne.
17. Williams, P., The Victory. 1997, Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
18. Falinski, J., The Victory – book review. Policy – The Centre for Independent Studies., 1997(Summer 97-98).
19. Gray, G., The Political Climate and Election Campaigning. from The Australian political system / David W. Lovell … [et al.]. 2nd ed ed, ed. M. Lovell, Maley, Kukathas. 1996, Melbourne :: Addison Wesley Longman. xvii, 950 p. ; 25 cm.
20. Plasser, F., American Campaign Techniques Worldwide. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2000. 5(4): p. 33-54.
21. Farrell, D.M., Political Consultancy Overseas: The Internationalization of Campaign Consultancy. PS: Political Science and Politics, 1998. 31(2): p. 171-176.
22. Gibson, R. and A. Rommele, Changing Campaign Communications: A Party-Centered Theory of Professionalized Campaigning. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2001. 6(4): p. 31-43.
23. Brent, P. Casualties in the Newspoll Wars. 2007 [cited; 11 July 2007:[Available from: http://www.mumble.com.au/index_oldish32.html.
24. Blewett, N. and D. Jaensch, Playford to Dunstan: the politics of transition 1971, Melbourne: Cheshire.
25. Oakes, L. and D. Solomon, The making of an Australian Prime Minister. 1973, Melbourne: Cheshire.
26. Young, S.A., The Persuaders: inside the hidden machine of political advertising. 2004, North Melbourne, Victoria: Pluto Press. xi, 404 p.
27. Mills, S., The Campaign Managers – The 1988 NSW Election Campaign – by the people who ran it. Australian Journal of Management, 1988. 13(Supplement 1988): p. 1-96.
28. Thompson, E., Political Culture, Americanization and Australia / edited by Philip Bell and Roger Bell. 1998, Sydney :: UNSW Press. xi, 282 p. ; 23 cm.
29. Gerber, A.S. and D.P. Green, The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment. The American Political Science Review, 2000. 94(3): p. 653-663.
30. Bowler, S., D.M. Farrell, and I. McAllister, Constituency campaigning in parliamentary systems with preferential voting: Is there a paradox? Electoral Studies, 1996. 15(4): p. 461-476.
31. Gerber, A.S., D.P. Green, and M. Green, Partisan mail and voter turnout: results from randomized field experiments. Electoral Studies, 2003. 22(4): p. 563-579.
32. Gerber, A.S., D.P. Green, and S. Ron, Voting May Be Habit-Forming: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment. American Journal of Political Science, 2003. 47(3): p. 540-550.
33. Gibson, R.K. and I. McAllister, Does Cyber-Campaigning Win Votes? Online Communication in the 2004 Australian Election. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties, 2006. 16(3): p. 243 – 263.
34. Studlar, D.T. and I. McAllister, The Electoral Connection in Australia: Candidate Roles, Campaign Activity, and the Popular Vote. Political Behavior, 1994. 16(3): p. 385-410.
35. Harris, P., Political marketing and political communication: the relationship revisited (online article). 2005.
36. Blumler, J.G. and M. Gurevitch, Americanisation reconsidered – UK-US comparisons across time. From Mediated politics : communication in the future of democracy / edited by W. Lance Bennett, Robert M. Entman. 2001, Cambridge, UK ; New York :: Cambridge University Press. xxvii, 489 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
37. Stockwell, S., Political Campaign Strategy – Doing Democracy in the 21st Century. 2005, Melbourne: Australian Scholarly.
38. Thomas, J., Political theatre of The West Wing, in Lingua Franca, ABC radio National, K.B. (Presenter), Editor. 2007, ABC.
39. McAllister, I., Party Adaptation and Factionalism within the Australian Party System. American Journal of Political Science, 1991. 35(1): p. 206-227.
40. Oakes, L., Clerk who defends democracy, in Daily Telegraph. 2008, News Limited: Sydney.
41. Bean, C., The Personal Vote in Australian Federal Elections. Political Studies, 1990. 38(2): p. 253-268.
42. McAllister, I., Political behaviour : citizens, parties and elites in Australia / Ian McAllister. 1992, Melbourne :: Longman Cheshire. xiv, 308 p. ; 24 cm.
43. Epstein, L.D., et al., A Comparative Study of Australian Parties. British Journal of Political Science, 1977. 7(1): p. 1-21.
44. Costar, B., The electoral system, Ch 10 in Government Politics Power & Policy In Australia. 2006: Pearson Education Australia.
45. McAllister, I., New developments in Australian politics / edited by Brian Galligan, Ian McAllister, John Ravenhill. 1997, South Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia. xx, 300 p.
46. Sheridan, G., Great white lie about our US ties, in The Australian. 2008, News Limited: Sydney.
47. Crisp, L.F., Federation fathers / L.F. Crisp ; edited by John Hart ; with a foreword by Professor Manning Clark. 1990, Carlton, Vic :: Melbourne University Press. xv, 484 p. ; 23 cm.
48. Thompson, E., The Washminster Mutation. from Responsible government in Australia / ed. by Patrick Weller & Dean Jaensch. 1980, Richmond, Vic. :: Drummond Publishing on behalf of The Australasian Political Studies Association. 276 p.
49. Seymour-Ure, C., The British press and broadcasting since 1945 / Colin Seymour-Ure. 1991, Oxford, OX, UK ; Cambridge, Mass :: Basil Blackwell. xi, 269 p. ; 22 cm.
50. Bennett, S.C., Winning and losing : Australian national elections 1996, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press.
51. Butler, D. and A. Ranney, Electioneering : a comparative study of continuity and change. . 1992, Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. 294 p.
52. Farrell, D.M., R. Kolodny, and S. Medvic, Parties and Campaign Professionals in a Digital Age: Political Consultants in the United States and Their Counterparts Overseas. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2001. 6(4): p. 11-30.
53. Young, S., Scare Campaigns: Negative Political Advertising in Australia, in Australasian Political Studies Association Conference. 2003: University of Tasmania, Hobart.
54. Wattenberg, M.P., Party Identification and Party Images: A Comparison of Britain, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Comparative Politics, 1982. 15(1): p. 23-40.
55. Carlisle, W., Post-modern politics ABC Radio National – Background Briefing. 2006, ABC radio.
56. Kakutani, M., Is Jon Stewart the Most Trusted Man in America?, in The New York Times. 2008: New York.
57. Stockwell, S., Reconsidering the Fourth Estate: The functions of infotainment, in Australian Political Studies Association, 29 September – 1 October 2004. 2004: University of Adelaide.
58. Melder, K.E., Hail to the candidate : presidential campaigns from banners to broadcasts / Keith E. Melder. 1992, Washington :: Smithsonian Institution Press. xii, 212 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm.
59. Younane, S., ‘Men and Women of Australia: Political rhetoric in Australian political science and communication, in APSA. 2007: Monash University.
60. Swanson, D.L.a. and P. Mancini, Politics, media, and modern democracy : an international study of innovations in electoral campaigning and their consequences / edited by David L. Swanson and Paolo Mancini. 1996, Westport, Conn. :: Praeger,. 288 p. ; 4 cm.
61. Negrine, R. and S. Papathanassopoulos, The “Americanization” of Political Communication: A Critique. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1996. 1(2): p. 45-62.
62. Rose, R., Lessons from America: an exploration. 1974, London :: Macmillan. 308.
63. Kavanagh, D., New Campaign Communications, Consequences for British Political Parties The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1996. Vol. 1(No. 3): p. 60-76
64. Rose, R., Influencing voters : a study of campaign rationality. 1967, London :: Faber and Faber. ill.
65. Palmer, J., Smoke and mirrors: is that the way it is? Themes in political marketing. Media Culture Society, 2002. 24(3): p. 345-363.
66. Louw, E., The Media and Political Process. 2007: Sage Publications Ltd. 320.
67. Leigh, A. and D. Burchell, The prince’s new clothes: why do Australians dislike their politicians? / edited by David Burchell and Andrew Leigh. 2002, Sydney: UNSW Press. x, 191 p. ; 24 cm.
68. Gibson, R.K., W. Lusoli, and S. Ward, Phile or Phobe? Australian and British MPs and the New Communications Technology, in Paper prepared for presentation at the 100th Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, , . 2004: Chicago.
69. O’Shaughnessy, N.J., Politics and propaganda : weapons of mass seduction / Nicholas Jackson O’Shaughnessy. University of Michigan Press ed ed. 2004, Ann Arbor :: University of Michigan Press. vii, 264 p. ; 24 cm.
70. Hughes, A. Selling politics – ANU news. 2008 [cited; Winter 2008:[Available from: http://news.anu.edu.au/?p=637.
71. Textor, M., Federal State of Play – Oztrack 33. 2008.
72. Kerr, C., Me-tooism claims backfired on the Coalition, May 02, 2008 in The Australian. 2008, News Lyd: Canberra.
73. McGirt, E., The Brand called Obama, in Fastcompany.com – where ideas and people meet. 2008.
74. Mayer, H., Labor to power: Australia’s 1972 election / edited by Henry Mayer. 1973, [Syd.] :: Angus & Robertson on behalf of the Australasian Political Studies Association.
75. Stockwell, S. and L. Cox, Grazing the field: voter uses of the media in election campaigns, in Journalism Education Conference. 2005: Griffith University.
76. O’Reilly, D., The new progressive dilemma : Australia and Tony Blair’s legacy / David O’Reilly. 2007, Basingstoke [England] ; New York :: Palgrave Macmillan. ix, 264 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
77. Pierson, C. and F.G. Castles, Australian Antecedents of the Third Way. Political Studies, 2002. 50(4): p. 683-702.
78. Lilleker, D. and J. Lees-Marshment, Political marketing : a comparative perspective. 2005, Westport, Conn.: Manchester University Press. 230 p.
79. Lakoff, G., Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate (A Progressive Guide to Action). 2004: Chelsea Green Publishing Company 125.
80. Kelly, D., The 2007 Federal Election in Australia: Framing Industrial Relations. Social Alternatives 2008. 27(2): p. 33-40.
81. Druckman, J.N., J.L. R., and O. Eric, Candidate Strategies to Prime Issues and Image. Journal of Politics, 2004. 66(4): p. 1180-1202.
82. Trippi, J., The Revolution Will Not be Televised. Democracy, the Internet, and the Overthrow of Everything. 2004: Published by ReganBooks.
83. Scammell, M., Designer politics : how elections are won / Margaret Scammell. 1995, Basingstoke, Hampshire : New York, N.Y. :: Macmillan ; St. Martin’s Press. xvi, 342 p.
84. Kavanagh, D., Election campaigning : the new marketing of politics / Dennis Kavanagh. 1995, Oxford, England ; Cambridge, Mass. :: B. Blackwell. ix, 272 p.
85. Ward, I. and M. Peisley, Parties, governments and pollsters: A new form of patronage? Australian Journal of Political Science, 2001. 36(3).
86. Hager, N., The Hollow Men, A study in the politics of deception. 2006, Wellington, NZ: Craig Potton Publishing.
87. Hager, N. (2008) Nat’s secret advisers accused of dirty tricks in Aussie. Sunday Star Times,
88. Errington, W. and P. Van Onselen, Shock Troops: The emerging role of Senators in House of Representatives Campaigns. Australian Journal of Political Science, 2005. 40(3): p. 357-371.
89. MacCallum, M., Poll dancing. The story of the 2007 election. 2007, Melbourne: Black Inc.
90. Steel, S. Polls – More than horserace commentary (Possum Comitatus). 2008 [cited 12 August 2008]; Available from: http://possumcomitatus.wordpress.com/2008/08/12/polls-more-than-horserace-commentary/.
91. Brent, P., August 11 Silly season: NT election stories. http://mumble.com.au/, 2008.
92. Hogg, B., Hawke the campaigner, from The Hawke government : a critical retrospective / edited by Susan Ryan & Troy Bramston, ed. T. Bramston and S. Ryan. 2003, North Melbourne, Vic. :: Pluto Press Australia. [xiii], 512 p. ; 24 cm.
93. Diamond, E., The spot : the rise of political advertising on television / Edwin Diamond and Stephen Bates. 1984, Cambridge, Mass :: Mit Press. xiv, 416 p. : ill ; 21 cm.
94. McAllister, I. (2005) The Personalization of Politics – Chapter for Oxford handbook of political behaviour.
95. Plasser, F., Global political campaigning : a worldwide analysis of campaign professionals and their practices / Fritz Plasser with Gunda Plasser. 2002, Westport, Conn. :: Praeger. xx, 400 p.
96. Young, S., Lecture – Politics and the Media in Australia Today. 2008, Parliament: Senate Occasional Lecture, 11 July 2008.
97. Senior, P. and P. van Onselen, Re-examining Leader Effects: Have Leader Effects Grown in Australian Federal Elections 1990â€“2004? Australian Journal of Political Science, 2008. 43(2): p. 225 – 242.
98. Bean, C., Leadership and voting: the connection at the state level. Australian Journal of Political Science, 2003. 38(3): p. 465 – 478.
99. Bean, C. and A. Mughan, Leadership Effects in Parliamentary Elections in Australia and Britain. The American Political Science Review, 1989. 83(4): p. 1165-1179.
100. Denemark, D., Television Effects and Voter Decision Making in Australia: A Re-examination of the Converse Model. British Journal of Political Science, 2002. 32(4): p. 663-690.
101. Hughes , A., Defining Negative Political Advertising: Definition, features and tactics, in Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference. 2003: University of South Australia, Adelaide.
102. Ward, I. and I. & Cook, Televised political advertising, media freedom and
democracy. Social Alternatives, 1992. 11(1): p. 21-26.
103. Miskin, S. and D.R. Grant (2004) Political advertising in Australia.
104. Butler, D., Australia – the 1998 election. Electoral Studies, 1999. 18(3): p. 411-413.
105. Stewart, J., Political Advertising in Australia and New Zealand, in SAGE Handbook of Political Advertising, L.L. Kaid and C. Holtz-Bacha, Editors. 2006, SAGE. p. 492 pages.
106. Whitington, D., The Rulers. 1964, Melbourne: Lansdown press.
107. Griffen-Foley, B., Political opinion polling and the professionalisation of public relations: Keith Murdoch, Robert Menzies, and the Liberal Party of Australia. Australian Journalism Review, 2002. 24(1): p. 41-59.
108. Rubensohn, S., Letter to Menzies, 1 March 1949, Menzies Collection, National Library, R. Menzies, Editor. 1949.
109. Crawford, R., Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections. The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, 2004. 4(3): p. 137–161.
110. Rubensohn, V., Themes in political advertising, Australian Federal Election campaigns 1949-1972, in Arts. 1978, Sydney: Sydney.
111. Crosby, L., The Liberal Campaign, Howard’s agenda : the 1998 Australian Election / edited by Marian Simms and John Warhurst. 2000, St Lucia, Qld. :: University of Queensland Press. xxi, 260 p. : ill., ports. ; 23 cm.
112. Brett, J., Exit Right. The unravelling of John Howard. Quarterly Essay, 2007(28).
113. Arbib, M., Election volatility is part of the Territory, in Sunday Telegraph. 2008, News Limited: Sydney.
114. Harris, P. and I. Kolovos, Does negative advertising work? 2005, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
115. Dann, S. (2006) The battle for the e-hearts and minds of voters. On-Line Opinion,
116. Labor, N., In the Liberals (at http://www.youtube.com/user/debnamrecord). 2007.
117. Spies-Butcher, B., The New South Wales Election of 24 March 2007: Explaining the Re-election of an Unpopular Government. Australian Journal of Political Science, 2007. 42(4): p. 693-699.
118. Jagoda, K., Objects in the Mirror Are Closer Than They Appear: Change is Accelerating in the Political Landscape 2007.
119. Macnamara, J. and P. Bell, E-Electioneering – Use of New Media in the 2007 Australian Federal Election. 2008, Australian Centre for Public Communication – University of Technology Sydney: Sydney p. 69.
120. McAllister, I. and R.K. Gibson, Online Campaigning in the 2007 Australian election: Did the web deliver votes?, in American Political Science Association. 2008: Boston.
121. Colbert, S., Tip of the hat – Colbert Report. 2007.
122. Ward, I., Kevin07. Labor’s pitch to Generation YouTube. Social Alternatives, 2008. 27(2): p. 11-15.
123. Atkin, H., Kevin Rudd – Chinese propaganda video. 2007.
124. Sojka, S., John Howard 2007 Bennelong Time Since I Rock and Rolled. 2007.
125. Hughes, A. (2008) 2020, GetUp!, and the getting of influence. Crikey.com.au,
126. Schubert, M., Liberal telephone calls anger voters, in The Age. 2004, Fairfax: Melbourne.
127. Seccombe, M. and C. Marriner, Liberal phone spam doesn’t ring true, say unhappy targets, in The Age. 2004: Melbourne.
128. Barlow, K., ‘It’s John Howard on the phone’ in PM (ABC Radio). 2004, ABC.
129. Costar, B. and P. Browne, The aftermath, How Labor lost, in A win and a prayer: scenes from the 2004 australian election. 2005. p. 132.
130. Website, A.P. About Axciom – Australia Post Website. 2008 [cited; Available from: http://www.auspost.com.au/BCP/0,1467,CH2405%257EMO19,00.html.
131. Errington, W. and P. Van Onselen (2004) Brace yourself for the rise of the permanent election campaign. Online Opinion,
132. Miskin, S., Campaigning in the 2004 federal election: innovations and traditions, in Research Note no. 30 2004–05. 2005, Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, Politics and Public Administration Section: Canberra.
133. Gauntlett, K. and D. Le Grand, Voters hang up on PM’s phone spam, in West Australian, . 2004: Perth.
134. Heywood, L., Howard dials up seats, in Courier Mail. 2004: Brisbane. p. 2.
135. Gordon, M., Phone tactic worked: pollster, in The Age. 2004: Melbourne.
136. Times, S.C., Snippets, in Sunday Canberra Times. 2004: Canberra.
137. Wildermuth, J., When Chris Rock Calls, in San Francisco Chronicle 2008: San Francisco.
138. Van Onselen, A. and P. Van Onselen, On Message or Out of Touch? Secure Web Sites and Political Campaigning in Australia. Australian Journal of Political Science,, 2008. Vol. 43(No. 1): p. pp. 43 – 58.
139. Barns, G., Selling the Australian government : politics and propaganda from Whitlam to Howard / Greg Barns. 2005, Sydney :: UNSW Press. 93 p. ; 22 cm.
140. Tiernan, A., Power without responsibility? : ministerial staffers in Australian governments from Whitlam to Howard / Anne Tiernan. 2007, Sydney :: University of New South Wales Press. xii, 283 p. ; 24 cm.
141. Errington, W. and P. van Onselen, Electoral databases: big brother or democracy unbound? Australian Journal of Political Science, 2004. 39(2): p. 349-366.
142. Saville, M., The battle for Bennelong : the adventures of Maxine McKew, aged 50 something. 2007, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. 182 p.
143. Gerber, A.S. and D.P. Green, Does Canvassing Increase Voter Turnout? A Field Experiment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1999. 96(19): p. 10939-10942.
144. Blydenburgh, J.C., A Controlled Experiment to Measure the Effects of Personal Contact Campaigning. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 1971. 15(2): p. 365-381.
145. Whiteley, P.F. and P. Seyd, Local Party Campaigning and Electoral Mobilization in Britain. The Journal of Politics, 1994. 56(1): p. 242-252.
146. Pattie, C.J. and R.J. Johnston, Hanging on the telephone? Doorstep and telephone canvassing at the British general election of 1997. British Journal of Political Science, 2003. 33,(2): p. 303-332.
147. Denver, D., et al., Constituency Campaigning in Britain 1992-2001: Centralization and Modernization. Party Politics, 2003. 9(5): p. 541-559.
148. Errington, W. and P. van Onselen, X files are keeping odds stacked in favour of MPs, in Sydney Morning Herald. 2003, fairfax.
149. Grattan, M., Money grows on trees, in The Sunday Age. 2004, fairfax: Melbourne.
150. Spies-Butcher, B. and S. Wilson (2008) Election 2007: Did the union campaign succeed? ,
151. Leigh, A., Economic voting and electoral behaviour: How do individual, local and national factors affect the partisan choice? Economics & Politics, 2005. 17(2): p. 265-296.
152. Cohen, B., How to become Prime Minister, for all aspiring politicians (and the people who have to vote for them). 1990: Penguin. 264.
153. Newman, B.I., The marketing of the president : political marketing as campaign strategy / Bruce I. Newman. 1994, Thousand Oaks, CA :: Sage Publications. xvii, 165 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
154. Newman, B.I., The Mass Marketing of Politics: Democracy in an Age of Manufactured Images. 1999, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. 184.
155. Johnson, D., No Place for Amateurs: How Political Consultants Are Reshaping American Democracy 2ed. 2001, New York: Routledge. 313.
156. Zetter, L., The Political Campaigning Handbook. Real life lessons from the front line. 2007, Hampshire: Harriman House Publishing. 154.
157. Plasser, F., Parties’ Diminishing Relevance for Campaign Professionals. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2001. 6(4): p. 44-59.
158. Taylor, L., Cut the spin, in the Australian. 2008, news limited: Canberra.
159. Wring, D., The politics of marketing the Labour Party / Dominic Wring. 2005, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York :: Palgrave Macmillan. xii, 262 p. ; 23 cm.
160. Brett, J., Developments in Australian politics / edited by Judith Brett, James Gillespie and Murray Goot. 1994, Melbourne :: Macmillan. x, 446 p.